According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), more than half of the U.S. population is overweight. But being obese is different from being overweight. An adult male is considered obese when his weight is 20% or more over the maximum desirable for their height; a woman is considered obese at 25% or more than this maximum weight. Anyone more than 100 pounds overweight is considered morbidly obese.
Rates of obesity are climbing. An ominous statistic is that the percentage of children and adolescents who are obese has doubled in the last 20 years.
Obesity increases a person’s risk of illness and death due to diabetes, stroke, coronary artery disease, hypertension, high cholesterol, and kidney and gallbladder disorders. Obesity may increase the risk for some types of cancer. It is also a risk factor for the development of osteoarthritis and sleep apnea.
Genetic factors play some part in the development of obesity — children of obese parents are 10 times more likely to be obese than children with parents of normal weight.
The term morbid obesity refers to patients who are 50 – 100% — or 100 pounds above — their ideal body weight. Alternatively, a BMI (body mass index) value greater than 39 may be used to diagnose morbid obesity.
For these people, bariatric, or weight loss surgery, is often the best choice for long term, permanent weight loss.
Bariatric: from the Greek Baros: weight and Iatrikos: medicine
Obesity: An excess of body fat. Obesity develops when energy intake exceeds energy expenditure over a long period.
Body Mass Index(BMI) : Obesity is classified according to body mass index
If you want to compare your weight status to others, BMI is a great method of analysis.
- World Epidemic of Overweight estimated to encompass 1.7 Billion Individuals
- 2/3 of the U.S. population are overweight and of those, 1/2 are obese
- BMI>25: 130 Million
- BMI>30: 60 Million
- BMI>35 and at least 1 obesity related complication: 15 Million
- BMI>40: 9 Million
- Prevalence of obesity in persons older than 18 years of age increased 5.6% in just one year from 2000 to 2001
- Each year, an estimated 365,000 adults in the U.S. die of obesity-related causes
- Direct cost of obesity: estimated at 9.4% of U.S. health care expenditures($117 Billion per year)
- Nurses’ Health Study:
- Direct relationship between increasing BMI and relative risk of dying prematurely
- >100% increase in relative risk as BMI increased from <19 to >32
- Framingham data:
Only 1 in 7 obese individuals will reach U.S. life expectancy of 76.9 years
In the morbidly obese population, the average life expectancy is reduced by:
9 years in women, 12 years in men
- An estimated 14% of all cancer deaths in men are due to obesity
- An estimated 20% of all cancer deaths in women are due to obesity
Medical Implications of Obesity
Impact of Obesity
- Co morbid diseases
- Reduced quality of life
- Social Discrimination
- Increased medical costs
- Premature death
Dietel Obes Surgery 2003; Flegal Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1998; Flegal JAMA 2002; Mokdad JAMA 1999; CDC 2002; Buchwald JAMA 2004
Buchwald J Am Coll Surg 2005; Moore Epidemiology 2000; Huang Ann Intern Med 1998; Hensrud Mayo Clinic Proc 2006; Calle N Engl J Med 2003
Bariatric Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (Buchwald, H. JAMA 2004)
Meta-Analysis: Surgical Treatment of Obesity (Maggard, M. Ann Intern Med 2005)
Swedish Obese Subjects Study (Sjostrom, L. N Engl J Med 2004)
Mortality after Gastric Bypass Surgery (Adams NEJM 2007)
Treatment of Mild to Moderate Obesity with Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding
(O’Brien Ann Intern Med 2006)
Implications of Adjustable Gastric Banding and Conventional Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes
(O’Brien JAMA 2008)